A normal walking gait pattern relies on some important biomechanical characteristics that are known as the determinants of gait. These six determinants of gait had been introduced by Saunders et al in 1953, and still have been extensively accepted with a few alterations as well as small concerns. These determinants of gait are thought to be significant as they facilitate a more efficient locomotion via the decreasing the up and down center of mass movement which leads to a reduction in the metabolic energy required for motion. The theory underpinning this is that the improved management of these determinants of gait brings about a rise in power preservation and more effective motion. The theory that does underpin these types of determinants of gait are typically in conflict with the ‘inverted pendulum’ principle that considers the static stance leg acting as a pendulum that follows an arc. The biomechanics area continues to debate the benefit of these two models.
The six determinants of gait and how they influence the centre of mass (COM) displacement as well as energy conservation are:
1. Pelvic rotation: The pelvis rotates side to side during normal gait to help with the advancement of the opposite side through lowered hip joint flexion and extension. This has an effect on the reduction of metabolic energy and the increased energy preservation by reduction of the vertical center of mass displacement.
2. Pelvic tilt: Throughout regular gait there's a slanting with the swing phase side of the pelvis which is handled by the hip abductor muscle group. This muscle action decreases the raising of the center of mass through the change from hip flexion to extension. This will decrease the use of metabolic energy and increase energy conservation by lessening vertical center of mass movement.
3. Knee joint flexion during stance phase: The knee is extended at heel contact after which begins to flex when the foot is on the floor. The knee flexion will lower the height with the up and down trajectory with the center of mass contributing to some energy preservation.
4. Movement with the foot and ankle: The ankle joint rockers at heel contact and mid-stance results in a reduction in center of mass displacement through the shortening of the lower leg are likely involved by lessening the COM vertical movement.
5. Knee movement: The motion of the knee joint relates to those of the ankle and foot movements and results in the lowering of the center of mass vertical displacement which leads to decreases in that COM displacement as well as energy cost.
6. Lateral displacement with the body: the lateral motion with the pelvis or a relative adduction of the hip is mediated with the effect of the tibiofemoral angle as well as relative adduction of the hip joint to minimize up and down COM movement. It's thought to be that this particular feature has a critical role in ensuring the proficiency in normal walking.
All six of these determinants of gait are pragmatically intriguing as they help us give attention to a number of important aspects to hold the center of mass movement from to much vertical movement to increase the effectiveness of walking. Nevertheless, some current analysis queries whether all or a number of the determinants are really that essential in the general pattern with the functions that happen throughout the walking cycle. Even though thinking of these types of determinants is fundamental in comprehending walking impairment.